Capital dating back to 1000 ad

The imperial period of Rome lasted approximately 1,500 years compared to the 500 years of the Republican era.The first two centuries of the empire's existence were a period of unprecedented political stability and prosperity known as the Pax Romana, or "Roman Peace".For Constantinople during the Ottoman era and the modern city, see Istanbul.

After Claudius' successor, Nero, committed suicide in AD 68, the empire suffered a series of brief civil wars, as well as a concurrent major rebellion in Judea, during which four different legionary generals were proclaimed emperor.The European region of the world has been inhabited since before 2000 BC with Indo-European tribes invading the area by 1800 BC.By the European Iron Age in 1200 BC, Greeks and Phoenicians were establishing Mediterranean cities.Civil wars and executions continued, culminating in the victory of Octavian, Caesar's adopted son, over Mark Antony and Cleopatra at the Battle of Actium in 31 BC and the annexation of Egypt.Octavian's power was then unassailable and in 27 BC the Roman Senate formally granted him overarching power and the new title Augustus, effectively marking the end of the Roman Republic.When Lucinius assumed power in the east in 313 CE, Constantine challenged and ultimately defeated him at the Battle of Chrysopolis, thereby reuniting the empire.

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